Development of practically all branches of metallurgical industry is associated with implication of vacuum technology. In powder metallurgy vacuum technology is used for compacting − sintering of hard alloys, permanent magnets etc. Vacuum processes of electron-beam and thermal-diffusion welding are used for producing unreleasable connections of devices, structural components of mechanisms and facilities in nuclear, automobile, electronic and other branches of industry. Metal and alloy vacuum fusion, conducted in furnaces, significantly reduces gas and non-metallic inclusions content, provides for high uniformity and density of the slab due to liquid metal crystallization, greatly improves physical and mechanical properties of the metal.
Vacuum fusion and refusion of metals enables solute gas release, thus ensuring their high mechanical strength, plasticity and viscosity. Vacuum technology is highly used in high-grade steel production. When it is necessary to eliminate the risk of oxidizing and other surface contaminations, vacuum annealing and thermal treatment are used. Without vacuum technologies large-scale production of chemically pure and heat-resistant metal materials would not be possible.Dome metals, which sorely become more and more demanded with development of new technologies, such as columbium and tantalum, can be manufactured only in vacuum conditions. These metals, as well as titanium, have great potential for chemical machine building, as they have perfect resistance to corrosion with regards to many aggressive mediums and, first of all, acids.