Comprehensive experimental testing of parts, apparatus and devices is of primary importance in space engineering. Particularly important are altitude tests, when high-altitude atmospheric conditions are artificially created in ground-based facilities.
To create the conditions of low density atmosphere and space environment, which are different from ground conditions in terms of temperature, pressure, residual gases composition, space engineers use high-altitude test facilities. Depending on the level of the vacuum created they can be categorized into facilities, simulating high-altitude atmospheric conditions, which create relatively low vacuum, and space simulators, requiring ultra-high vacuum conditions.
Expansion of the scale of the space flights increases the demand for special vacuum chambers for conducting ground tests of space flight units and their components. It must be possible to create inside these chambers such conditions, which would as close as possible resemble the space conditions not only in terms of the general pressure in the system, but also in terms of the residual gases’ composition. The pressure on the altitude of 1000 km from the Earth surface is already 10-11 Torr.Scientific research processes in the field of fundamental sciences imply vacuum technology on a large scale. Almost space-level vacuum conditions are necessary for controlled thermonuclear reactions research facilities. Space simulation in the conditions of the earth atmosphere is necessary for testing artificial satellites, rockets, investigation of adhesion and friction between various materials.